One of the most important forms of renewable energy are wind, the energy that is produced by the wind farm.
Today's wind turbines convert the energy present in wind motion into electricity without producing pollutants and using a free and inexhaustible energy source . The development of wind energy technology in recent years has been rapid . The nominal power of the wind turbines is increasing , as well as their reliability . In Greece , the wind starring in the development of Renewable Energy Sources ( RES ) and presents significant investment opportunities . The high wind potential of the country is ranked among the most attractive in Europe , with an average annual wind speed exceed , in many parts of the country, 8 m / sec. Areas such as Evia , Peloponnesus , Thrace and Crete , due to the very good wind potential , holding primacy on the installed capacity of wind power plants.
How it works ?
The wind turns the blades of the wind turbine and they then rotate a motor that generates electricity . Today's wind turbines have two or three blades and attach 200 to 400 kilowatts of electrical power. ( Image 1 ) In our country , due to the number of islands , the wind farms are one of the best solutions for energy production. Strong winds prevailing in island and coastal areas can produce a very large percentage of the electricity we need. Most wind farms in our country is located in Central Greece and Evia in particular , where wind systems installed total capacity of 264 megawatts. ( Image 2 )
Steps to implement a wind farm
The first step in installing a wind farm is to measure the wind potential . A prospective investor should take into account official figures wind capacity , at least one year , for the area in which you want to install the wind farm . Suitable area for wind farm installation is considered that has average annual wind speed of more than 5 m / sec and while low maximum wind speed in which no bursts occur frequently . ( Image 3 ) Next step if the wind is judged satisfactory licensing process . Depending on the size of the facility changes and licensing process . According to Law No. 3851 on RES installations above 100 kW , you must first become competent PPC application to be licensed by the city planning for the installation of park and environmental approval . Small installations below 20 kW are exempt from mandatory environmental permits . Excludes those establishments made in land located in confined areas of the network Natura 2000, or less than 150 meters from an existing wind station, if the total capacity of both plants exceed 20 kilowatts.
To permit issued by the planning should be the following conditions :
(a ) A distance of more than 850 meters from already defined Development Limit and more than 350 meters from legally existing single dwelling located outside the Development Limit .
( b ) more than 300 meters from the boundary Coast and Nature Protection , Geomorfomatos , Protected Landscape Area of Conservation NATURA 2000 Convention area RAMSAR, cultural landscape or other defined area of nature protection .
( c ) A distance of more than 150 % and 100 % of the maximum height of the turbine from the motorway limit and the limit of any other registered public road (not street that leads primarily to turbine wind farm ) .
( d ) A distance greater than 350 meters from any point on the runway or flight cone and handling volatile instruments or other distance will be determined by the Civil Aviation Department or the Department of Defense , according to the peculiarities of each region .
( e ) A distance of more than 150 % and 100 % of the maximum turbine height , from overhead high voltage (66 KV or more) or other lower voltages , respectively .
( f ) A distance greater than 500 meters from the archaeological site , which will be determined by the Planning Authority , taking into account relevant aspects of the Department of Antiquities and the Environment Agency .
( g ) A distance greater than 200 meters from the limit state forest with dense vegetation . In state forest with sparse or low shrubby vegetation , possible siting wind farm , provided they are not affected fire lane, after having secured the opinions of the Department .
(h ) A distance greater than 500 meters from the runway and transit passage of migratory birds and the threshold specified a Special Protection of wild birds and habitats . If siting a wind farm or turbine windfarm within 500-1000 m of these areas will ensure the views of the Game Fund .
( i ) more than 100 meters from the runway radio transmitting and 600 meters from the runway transmission lawfully existing telecommunications antennas . Each application will be assessed by the Department of Telecommunications and the distances they may be amended based on opinion regarding the possibility of influencing radio installation
( j ) Any wind turbine at a distance greater than 50 meters and control building of the wind farm will be located at least 6 meters from the boundaries of the property for development .
( k) The level of noise pollution will be within the specified limits . Unless otherwise specified under specific legislation , turbine windfarm should be sited in such a way that the noise level from its operation do not exceed the limits specified in the following table , as measured at the boundaries of the respective zones ( Table 1 ) .
Implementation costs depend on the equipment you choose to install. The cost per kilowatt hour is from 700 to 1100 euros. A complete installation of 50Kw costs around around € 160.000 and the purchase price per kilowatt hour of the electricity is 0,25 € / kW. The environmental benefits of installing a wind farm is very important . One megawatt of wind energy meets the needs of 350 households , corresponding to 300 tonnes of oil . A gigawatt hour wind saves 600 tonnes of carbon dioxide annually . The energy required for the construction of a wind turbine is quenched in the first six months of operation , and the lifetime is 20 years. (Photo 4) The installation of a windfarm is certainly of ecological solutions , but should be taken seriously into consideration the protection of wildlife. For this reason there should be no installations of wind farms in ecologically sensitive areas and protection of birds. Most wind farms , so far , the negative impact on bird numbers are negligible or zero. According to Greenpeace, the right and advance provision for the proper siting of a wind farm , practically eliminates the risk to birds and the promotion of renewable energy is the only solution to our planet to be a welcoming home for all fauna.
Source : 4green.gr